Know Your Hazards

Heat

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Heat 141

In southern Oregon, summer temperatures can hover in the 90s for weeks at a time. It is not unusual to have numerous days where the temperature reaches over 100 degrees! Whenever possible, avoid prolonged exposure to the heat.

Heat kills by taxing the human body beyond its capabilities. Under normal conditions, the body produces perspiration that evaporates and cools. In extreme heat or high humidity, evaporation is slowed and the body has to work harder to cool itself. In a normal year, an average of 175 Americans die from extreme heat. Young children, the elderly and those who are sick or overweight are more likely to become victims.

Extreme Heat Terms

Heat Wave - Prolonged periods of excessive heat, often combined with excessive humidity.

Heat Index -A number in degrees Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it feels when relative humidity is added to the air temperature. Exposure to full sunshine can increase the heat index by 15 degrees.

Heat Cramps - Muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are often the first sign that the body is having trouble with the heat.

Heat Exhaustion - Typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where the body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases causing blood flow to
decrease to the vital organs. This results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim's condition will worsen. Body temperature will keep rising and the victim may suffer heat stroke.

Heat Stroke -A life-threatening condition. The victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly. Sun Stroke -Another term for heat stroke.

During a Heat Emergency

  • Stay indoors as much as possible and limit sun exposure.
  • Stay on the lowest floor of your home out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available.
  • Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings with air conditioning such as libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls and other community facilities.
  • Eat well-balanced, light and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
  • Limit intake of alcoholic beverages - alcohol is a diuretic and causes your body to remove fluids and quickly dehydrate.
  • Dress in loose - fitting, lightweight clothes that cover as much skin as possible.
  • Protect face and head by wearing a widebrimmed hat.
  • Check on family, friends and neighbors who do not have air conditioning and who spend much of their time alone.
  • Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles.
  • Be sure pets have plenty of water and shelter from the sun.
  • Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy system when working in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks.
TIP: Children, the elderly and pets can be more susceptible to the effects of extreme heat.

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